At Gc we hope that your quality Gc timepiece will continue to give you pleasure and satisfaction for years to come. As such we believe that excellent customer service is essential. You will find here tips on how to care for your timepiece and maintain your guarantee as well as who to contact in case of repair. To ensure long life of your timepiece, only trust it to a professional Gc accredited service center. Guarantees are only given with genuine Gc timepieces purchased from legitimate official Gc dealers - Beware of counterfeits!
ABS (ACRYLONITRILE BUTADIENE STYRENE)**
ABS is a thermoplastic material and is recognized for its alliance between resin and elastomer. ABS material is known not only for its brilliance and aesthetic features, but also for its resistant and easy to clean properties. Therefore, the advantage of ABS is that this material combines the strength and rigidity with toughness and heat resistance.
Said of a watch if it has been tested and rated in various positions. These positions may include dial up, dial down, crown right, crown left, crown up, and crown down positions. Temperature adjustment means that the watch has been tested at various temperatures and the compensation observed.
Alarm functions may be fitted (most commonly) to battery powered quartz watches; the alarm with beep at the pre-set time. There are mechanical alarm watches featuring a hammer which produces the alarm sound at the pre-set time.
The swing of a balance. Sometimes used to describe the frequency of a mechanical movement, however seems more often used to describe the angle of oscillation of the balance wheel either side of its neutral position. This would therefore be measured in degrees, for example 'an amplitude of 270 degrees'. The maximum swing from its normal at rest position to its furthest distance from rest (usually about 300 degrees).
It refers to the means of showing the time on a watch dial by means of hands, numbers or markers that display a 12-hour time period.
It refers to a watch that has both a digital display and hands of a conventional analog watch.
The anchor helps perform the final part of the mechanical process in a mechanical watch in order to divide the seconds and provide accurate timekeeping. Moving side to side, it allows the final wheel (escape wheel) to rotate one cog at a time. This process produces the ticking sound of a mechanical watch.
A feedback regulator that controls the speed of a mechanical clock.
A treatment on watch crystal to eliminate light reflection and improve legibility of the watch dial.
A small opening in the dial that displays certain information such as date, day, month, or moon phase.
Applique or applied chapters are numerals or symbols cut out of a sheet metal and stuck or riveted to a dial.
Numbers on a watch dial that are written the way we typically write numbers.
A plastic crystal installed by compressing it to fit into a groove in the face of the watchcase, instead of cementing it into place. What distinguishes an armored crystal from a common snap crystal is a ring of metal at the base, meant to hold the crystal firmly in place.
Process of fitting together the components of a movement. This was formerly done entirely by hand, but the operations have now been largely automated. Nevertheless, the human element is still primordial, especially for inspection and testing.
French term for the parts used for making an escapement.
Function on a chronograph for measuring the rate of respiration.
A measurement of pressure called an atmosphere. An atmospheric measure is the amount of air pressure at sea level that a watch can withstand. One atmosphere equals 33 feet. 1 ATM = 33 feet or 10 meters. 3.3 feet = 1 meter.
An automatic movement is a mechanical movement in which the mainspring is wound as a result of the wearer's arm motion. The movement of the wrist and body causes the rotor (a metal weight attached to a winding mechanism) to pivot freely on its staff in the center of the movement. The rotor rotates back and forth in a circular motion at the slightest action of the wrist. The rotor's movement winds the mainspring, a flat coiled spring that powers mechanicalwatches. The system was invented in Switzerland by Abraham-Louis Perrelet in the 18th century. These watches can be shaken or manually wound if the power reserve runs out. Automatics are also referred to as â€š"self-windingâ€š". The SE-1 and SE-2 Automatic feature an ETA 2824 movement.
A watch with animated figures, placed on the dial or case, actuated by the going, striking, musical or repeating train.
AUTO-REPEAT COUNTDOWN TIMER
A countdown timer that resets itself as soon as the pre-set time has elapsed and starts the countdown again. It repeats the countdown continuously until the wearer pushes the stop button.
AUTO REPEAT TIMER
A function that counts down time and then resets itself as soon as a preset time has elapsed. It repeats the countdown continuously until a button is pressed to stop the function.
Moving part, usually circular, oscillating about its axis of rotation. The hairspring coupled to it makes it swing to and fro, dividing time into exactly equal parts. Together with the balance spring, the balance, often said to be the "heart" of the watch, is an oscillating little wheel, just a few millimeters in diameter, that swings to and fro and determines the frequency of the watch, and hence the timekeeping ability of the watch. As the balance works like a pendulum, the balance spring's function consists of its elastic return and starting of a new oscillation. This combined action determines the frequency (the number of vibrations per hour) and affects the rotation speed of the different wheels. The balance, by its oscillations, at every vibration (through the action of pallets), frees a tooth of the escape wheel. From this, motion is transmitted to the fourth wheel, which makes a revolution in one minute, to the third and then the center wheel, the latter making a full rotation in one hour. Each of the to-and-fro movements of the balance ("tick-tack") is called an "oscillation". One oscillation is composed of two vibrations.
Spiral spring together with the balance, determines the movement's precision. Its length determines the amount that the balance regularly oscillates: the shorter the spring the faster the watch runs. It returns the balance wheel back to a neutral position. The sprung balance regulates the timekeeping, the period of each swing depending upon the ratio of the moment of inertia of the balance to the stiffness or elasticity of the spring.
The spindle or arbor upon which the balance is mounted.
Regulating organ of the watch, vibrating on a spiral hairspring. Lengthening and shortening of the balance spring makes the balance wheel go faster or slower to advance or retard the watch.
A thin metal rod fixed between the horns that attaches the bracelet or strap to the watch. Also called a lug or spring bar.
A cylindrical barrel with a toothed rim that meshes with the first pinion of the watch train. The barrel contains the main spring that is wound around an arbor, turned by the winding crown, or in the case of automatic movements, by the gear powered by the rotor.
Spring's tension that controls the amount of energy transmitted to the measurement. Hooked to the barrel and arbor, when it is tensed it releases energy.
Commonly referred to as stick markers, any straight-line marker used in place of numbers on a watch.
BATTERY RESERVE INDICATOR (END OF BATTERY INDICATOR)
Some battery operated watches have a feature that indicates when the battery is approaching the end of its life. This is often indicated by the second hand moving in two second intervals instead of each second.
One complete oscillation of the balance wheel or the number of times per second (BPS) or per hour (BPH) that a balance wheel goes through a full arc of motion or the vibrations per hour (VpH) (half oscillation, or "tick") of a movement.
Furrow or groove cut at an angle that is either over or under, but not equal to 90 degrees.
Grinding of edges of plates, bridges, or bars of a movement to give it a high polish. Beveling treatment is typically found in high-grade movements.
The ring which surrounds the watch dial (or face). The bezel is usually made of gold, gold plate or stainless steel. It generally holds the glass or crystal in place. A rotating ratchet bezel moves in some watches as part of a complication. Rotating bezels either rotate clockwise, counter clockwise, or both to assist in calculations. Many sport styles feature â€š"tachymeterâ€š" markings on the bezel, which can be used to compute speed based on fixed distance traveled. See also Tachymeter definition.
BI-DIRECTIONAL ROTATING BEZEL
A bezel that can be rotated either clockwise or counterclockwise. These are used for mathematical calculations such as average speed or distance (see "slide rule") or for keeping track of elapsed time(see "elapsed time rotating bezel").
Formed of two different metals, usually brass and steel, whose different coefficients of expansion are used for compensating the effects of temperature changes on a steel balance spring.
Traditionally, high quality movements were fitted with screws which were artificially blued, more for decoration than function.
It supports the bridges, which are often on the top of the plate, the movement, the dial, and the holes where the jewels are inserted.
A type of watchband made of elements that resemble links.
A metal plate fastened to the main plate by means of screws leaving room for a gear or pinion. Complementary part fixed to the main plate to form the frame of a watch movement. The other parts are mounted inside the frame.
Lighting on a watch dial that allows the wearer to read the time in the dark.
Push piece controls, usually at 2'oclock and/or 4'oclock on the dial to control specific functions such as the chronograph or the alarm.
The power source of a quartz movement. A typical battery will last 12 to 18 months.
The calendar mechanism or function on a watch can consist of a date only showing in a window through to a triple calendar, showing the date, day and month. A combination of dial cut outs and pointer hands may be used. Some chronograph watches shoe the information on sub-dials on the watch face. Most calendar watches show the information digitally through an aperture on the watch face. The most complicated calendar mechanisms may be mechanically programmed to show the year, and months including those with less that 31 days; leap years can also be mechanically allowed for. Sometimes referred to as perpetual calendars.
A term that refers to the size and type of watch movement. The diameter of the movement measured in "Parisian lines," where 1=2.256mm.
Often used in referring to a curved or arched dial or bezel.
CARAT (US: KARAT)
1 karat = 1/24 fine gold of a gold alloy. An 18 karat gold alloy contains 18/24 fine gold= 75% fine gold content.
The case is the main part of the timepiece that contains and protects the movement. The case of a watch must not only protect the mechanism and hold all the parts together but it must also look good -sometimes to the extent of making a timepiece into a piece of jewelry. A watch case is generally in 3 parts -the bezel, which holds the crystal, -the band or centrepart, which contains the movement, -and the back, either snapped or screwed on, in to which, sometimes, is fitted a crystal so that an intricate mechanical movement watch. Gc cases are made of stainless steel.
Bottom of the watch that lies against your skin. The case back is the detachable back of the case which is removed for servicing the timepiece. A Gc watch case back has an engraved Gc logo as well as a serial number that serves as an identification feature for traceable authenticity. They are either snapped or screwed on or affixed with screws, depending on the design of the particular model.
Materials range from inexpensive cast metal through moulded plastic to solid chunks of steel or gold from which the case is machined. In Great Britain, gold cases are usually 18k, but less expensive watches are 9k. In most other countries, 14k is preferred. Caratage indicates the gold content of metal, stated as the number of parts of gold in every 24 parts, i.e. 18k gold is 18 parts of gold alloyed with six parts of metal. Platinum is becoming increasingly popular, as is titanium for its lightness. Ceramic cases and bracelets -a scratch resistant space age material formed under great pressure and heat from powder -are used by some manufacturers. It does not bear any resemblance to the ceramics used in pottery. Some watches in the middle price ranges are gold plated over brass -9k or 18k plating usually. Vermeil is the term used to describe silver which has been gold plated.
The wheel, centrally placed, the arbor of which carries the minute hand.
Seconds indicated by a hand at the centre of the dial, along with the hour and minute hands.
Ceramic is a combination of two different types of types of metal powders, resulting from extreme high temperatures and high pressure. It is a non-allergic stainless, stableand scratch resistant material, featuring cutting edge technology with a hardness of 9 on the Mohs scale (on which diamond rates 10). Important Note: HARD, NOT INDESTRUCTIBLE!Although Gc Watches Ceramic materials are resistant to scratches, they are not indestructible, watches must be treated with care. They should not be dropped, and sharp knocks should be avoided. If hit by hard materials, such as Diamond and Sapphire, they may break. Furthermore, please be aware that some materials in everyday use may contain particles of close-to-diamond hardness. They can be found-for instance-in grindstones, sandpaper, nail files, granite surfaces and concrete walls. You should therefore avoid the contact of your watch with such objects or surfaces.
Beveling the edges of bridges or screws.
Hand treatment done on the dial or case surface by hollowing out an area of metal with a graver and subsequently filing the hollows with enamel.
The ring on the watch dial bearing figures and minute marks. The hour figures are sometimes called chapters.
A chronograph is a mechanism for measuring short time spans independently of the normal timekeeping function. It is referring to a watch that includes a timer that can be started and stopped to time an event. There are many variations on the chronograph. Some operate with a center seconds hand which keeps time on the watch's main dial. Others use sub-dials to time elapsed hours, minutes and seconds. Still others show elapsed time on a digital display on the watch face. Some chronographs can be used as a lap timer. Many mechanical chronographs measure up to 12 hours with indicators for seconds, minutes (usually to 30) and hours. The accuracy of the stopwatch function is 1/100th second for Gc chronograph.. Watches that include the chronograph function are themselves called "chronographs."
A chronometer is a high-precision watch capable of displaying the seconds and housing a movement that has been tested over several days, in different positions and at different temperatures, by an official neutral body (COSC). Each chronometer is unique, identified by a number engraved on its movement and a certification number given by the COSC. Each movement is individually tested for several consecutive days, in 5 positions and at 3 temperatures. Each movement is individually measured. Any watch with the denomination "chronometer" is provided with a certified movement.
Surface decoration applied to plates, bridges, and rotors comprising an even pattern of partially overlapping dots, applied with a quickly rotating plastic or wooden peg.
A deployment buckle is a 3 folding enclosure that secures the 2 ends of the bracelet (fold over buckle, butterfly clasp). hook lock buckle is 2 separate units that fit on either end of the bracelet and allows the watch to be laid flat (eweler's clasp, sliding clasp).
A type of enamel work, mainly used for the decoration of dials, in which the outlines of the drawing are formed by thin gold threads. Colored enamels then fill the hollowed out portions. After oven firing, the surface is smoothed until the gold threads reappear. The intricate crafting and tricky firing procedures raise this type of enameling to an art form all its own.
CLOUS DE PARIS**
Decoration of metal parts characterized by numerous small pyramids.
A metal plate having one end fastened to the movement plate and the other end supporting the pivot of a wheel. The balance cock supports the top pivot of the balance staff and is mounted on the top plate of the watch movement.
Upright castle shaped wheel in a chronograph that acts as a sliding link to operate the various levers that set the chronograph functions in motion, generally more accurate type of chronograph.
Additional function other than basic timekeeping of the hours, minutes, and seconds. Although taken for granted, certain features such as automatic winding or date are considered complications. The main complications are power reserve, moonphase, GMT, and full calendars. Great complications are split second chronographs, perpetual calendars, tourbillons, and minute repeaters.
Acronym for "Controle Officiel Suisse de Chronometres," the most important Swiss testing office responsible for the functioning and precision tests of movements. Tests are conducted on each individual movement at different temperatures and in different positions for which a maximum gap of -4/+4 seconds per day is tolerated. Those that pass the specifications for being a chronometer are awarded a certificate.
The cosmograph differs to the chronograph in that the tachymeter is on the bezel rather than on the outer rim of the dial.
COTES DE GENEVE
Surface decoration applied mainly to high quality movements, comprising an even pattern of parallel stripes, applied with a quickly rotating plastic or wooden peg.
Function which measures time remaining in preset period of time.
The crown is the â€š"knobâ€š" used to set analog watch functions. In a mechanical watch the crown also winds the mainspring. In this case it is also called a "winding stem". Gc watches feature aâ€š"Gcâ€š" logo on the crown. To increase water resistance, many styles feature â€š"screw downcrownsâ€š" which must first be unscrewed prior to setting the time/date.
The transparent cover over the watch face, commonly known as the glass. Two types ofcrystals are commonly found in watches:- Mineral crystal is comprised of several elements that are heat treated tocreate unusual hardness that aids in resisting scratches.- Sapphire crystal is the most durable material. It has a hardness second onlyto diamonds.
Two pins, which embrace the balance spring at its outer end near to its attachment. The pins are fixed to the regulator or index. The time of vibration of the balance is adjusted by alternating the position of the pins.
Small lens on the crystal to magnify the date.
Some watch movements come highly decorated, for example with Geneva Stripes and blued screws. Whilst decoration may not improve function, it often indicates a degree of hand assembly/finishing and an attention to detail in the construction of a watch. Some watches show off the decorated movement through the use of a display back.
DEPTH SENSOR/ DEPTH MERTER
A device on a divers' watch that determines the wearer's depth by measuring water pressure. It shows the depth either by analog hands and a scale on the watch face or through a digital display.
A mechanism that prevents another part from operating at certain times or at one point in a cycle of operations.
The dial, often referred to as the face is usually marked with numbers or batons to which the hands point in order for the wearer to tell the correct time. Dials themselves can be very simple, sometimes with no markers at all or extremely complex as in the case of pilots' chronographs. Dials can be decorated with patterns or in some cases with precious stones., or through windows. Typically, the dial is made of brass, sometimes silver or gold. A skeleton dial has metal cut away from the dial exposing the movement underneath.
As opposed to an analogue display, a digital display shows the time in numbers. Most often used with LCD displays in the case of a quartz watch, during the 1960's there were many mechanical digitals with rotating discs instead of hands. Cut outs in the dial would show the correct time. The first quartz digital watches came onto the market in the early/mid 1970s; for example the Pulsar Time Computer.
A watch that shows the time through digits using an LCD or LED to display a continuous reading.
Function that uses the sun to determine the geographical direction.
Indication of time or other data, either by means of hands moving over a dial (analogue display) or by means of numerals appearing in one or more windows (digital or numerical display); these numerals may be completed by alphabetical indications (alphanumerical display) or by signs of any other kind. Example: 12.05 MO 12.3 = 12 hours, 5 minutes, Monday 12th March. Such displays can be obtained by mechanicalor electronic means.
Also called a skeleton back it is a caseback that is transparent so that movement may be viewed.
Divers' watches traditionally are large, featuring a graduated rotating bezel and often a screw down winding crown and a metal or rubber strap (not leather) with sapphire crystal. Water resistant to 200m as a minimum, the modern diver's watch must confirm to certain standards laid down for example by ISA in order to be classified as a Scuba Divers Watch.
DLC (DIAMOND LIKE CARBON)
A metal coating that produces a grey/black finish that is very scratch resistant and corrosion resistant. This type of coating is like PVD, but even harder.
DUAL TIME ZONE
It measures local time as well as time in another time zone.
The ebauche refers to the basic movement. To this, a particular manufacturer may add complications, decorate the movement or refine the movement by adding higher grade components.
ELAPSED TIME ROTATING BEZEL
A graduated rotating bezel (see "rotating bezel") used to keep track of elapsed time. The bezel can be turned so the wearer can align the zero on the bezel with the watch's seconds or minutes hand. After a period of time passes, you can read the elapsed time off the bezel. This saves you having to perform the subtraction that would be necessary if you used the watch's regular dial.
END OF ENERGY
The end of energy in a "mechanical" watch is indicated by the seconds' hand, which jumps every 2, 3, or 4 seconds.
END OF LIFE
The end of battery life in a "quartz" watch is indicated by the seconds hand, which jumps every 2, 3, or 4 seconds.
Decoration of dials, rotors, or case parts performed by an engine-turning lathe, producing a variety of patterns. It is also known as guilloche.
The receiving pallet, which receives impulses from the escape wheel teeth as they enter. The exit pallet, or discharging pallet, receives impulses as the teeth leave.
EQUATION OF TIME
Difference between clock time and the defined position of the sun.
The last wheel in the going train, which permits "escape" of the motive force, giving impulse to the balance. It is alternately locked and released.
The escapement in a mechanical watch refers to a combination of parts including the anchor, pallets and balance wheel amongst others which translate the power of the mechanism into regular timekeeping. The escapement is responsible for the familiar ticking sound of a mechanical watch.
Leading manufacturer in Switzerland for movements used in many Swiss watch brands.
In the Swiss watch industry, the term manufacture is used of a factory in which watches are manufactured almost completely, as distinct from an "atelier de terminage", which is concerned only with assembling, timing, fitting the hands and casing.
Ring that separates the crystal from the dial.
Engraving on a dial or case, typically covered with a layer of enamel.
Decoration on surfaces of case bezels or dials comprising of parallel grooves.
Function that allows a chronograph to be reset to zero without having to stop the chronograph first.
A seconds hand on a chronograph that can be used to time laps or to determine finishing times for several competitors in a race. It starts the chronograph, putting both the flyback hand and the regular chronograph seconds hand in motion. To record a lap time or finishing time, stop the flyback hand. After recording the time, push a button and the hand will "fly back" to catch up with the constantly moving elapsed-time hand. Repeat the process to record as many lap times or finishing times as needed.
Small dial that is marked 0-8. The hand on the dial completes a sweep every second which is an elapsed time of 1/8th of second for each number.
The wheel in a watch that drives the escape wheel pinion to the arbor of which the seconds hand is attached.
A watch caliber in which the top plate as well as the pillar plate, is a circular plate, with the balance mounted above the top plate.
Automatic watches with rotors that travel 360 degrees in both directions.
The same as a complication on a mechanical watch, but technically called a function on a quartz watch.
Most water resistant watches are equipped with gaskets to seal the caseback, crystal, and crown from water. Gaskets need to be checked every couple of years to maintain water resistance.
The gears used in a mechanical watch which run from the mainspring which powers the watch through to the escapement which translates that power into timekeeping.
Distinction assigned by the Canton of Geneva to movements produced by watch firms of the region and complying with all the standards of high horology with respect to craftsmanship, small-scale production, working quality, accurate assembly and setting. The Geneva Seal is engraved on at least one bridge and shows the Canton's symbol, a two shield with an eagle and a key respectively in each field.
A form of decoration in higher grade watch movements which look like stripes on the movement plates. These used to be applied by hand; in many cases in modern times, they are very simply applied by machine.
Thin plate of glass or transparent synthetic material, for protecting the dials of watches, clocks, etc.
Greenwich Mean Time (GMT), a watch that has the capability of displaying two different time zones.
Going train is made up of the going barrel, which drive the center wheel. The center wheel drives the third wheel then the 3rd wheel drives the second wheel. The second wheel drives the escapement wheel. It is the system of gears that transmits power from the mainspring to the escapement.
The most complex of mechanical watches featuring an abundance of complications. The term is normally restricted to mechanical watches. Quartz watches with additional features are usually described as 'multi-functional'.
Decoration of dials, rotors, or case parts performed by an engine-turning lathe, producing a variety of patterns. It is also known as engine turning. This form of decoration, giving the dial great depth is often applied to silver or silvered dials.
A feature that stops the second hand when the stem is pulled out as far as it will go and allows you to set the exact time. Originally it was a military term for this feature.
The (hair spring) is attached to the balance and cock, and made of metal alloys. Its length determines the amount that the balance regularly oscillates: the shorter the spring the faster the watch runs. It returns the balance wheel back to a neutral position. It is a synonymous of balance spring.
In a half plate movement, a section of the upper (top) plate is cut away to allow the balance to be mounted in the same plane as the plate, the balance, escape wheel, and fourth wheel having separate cocks.
A mark stamped into the case of the watch to provide information about the degree of purity of the metal used, the country of origin, the country of origin, the year of manufacture, the identity of the case's maker, trademarks, reference numbers, and/or serial numbers.
Indicator, usually made of a thin, light piece of metal, very variable in form, which moves over a graduated dial or scale. Watches usually have three hands showing the hours, minutes and seconds.
Simply describes a watch with a mechanical movement which needs to be wound by the wearer using the winding crown. This winds the mainspring up which then releases its energy to power the watch.
Part of the case where the bracelet is attached by lugs or pins.
science of time measurement, including the art of designing and constructing timepieces.
The wheel, which carries the hour hand.
A term to describe products that have a decreased likelihood of provoking an allergic reaction or causing skin irritation.
The energy or "push" derived from the mainspring via the train and escapement and imparted to the balance to maintain its oscillations.
Shock-absorber system to help prevent damage from shocks to the balance pivots. Its retaining spring system assures an elastic play of both jewels of the balance wheel, thus absorbing the movements of the balance staff pivots when the watch receives strong shocks.
Usually refers to the markings on the dial of a watch showing hours and minutes. Can however refer to the markings on the regulator of a watch movement to aid precision adjustment for accurate timekeeping.
A small lever having a shorter end which carries the curb pins and a longer end that passes over a scale to serve as "R" ("slow" or "retard") or "F" or "A" ("fast" or "avant").
A watch bracelet that is incorporated into the design of the case.
A bezel inside the watch case usually with a separate or additional crown.
Bearings in a watch movement made of ruby, sapphire, crystal, or synthetic ruby. Generally, the steel pivots of wheels turn inside jewels (mostly synthetic rubies) lubricated with a very thin layer of special oil. The jewel's hardness reduces wear to a minimum even over long periods of time (50 to 100 years). Most refined jewels have rounded holes and walls to greatly reduce the contact between pivot and stone. The quality of a watch is determined more on the shape and finishing of jewels rather than their number.
Julius Caesar introduced a calendar with 12 months and 365 days. Previously the calendar had 10 months of 30 days each. The Julian calendar introduced "leap year" stating that a day would be added to the calendar every 4 years. That is required because there are roughly 365.25 days in a year.
System of timekeeping whereby the seconds and minutes are shown by traditional hands but the hour is shown in a dial cutout (often at 12), on the minutes hand reaching 59 minutes, the hour disc under the dial will jump to the next hour.
A chronograph function that lets the wearer time segments of a race. At the end of a lap, he stops the timer, which then returns to zero to begin timing the next lap.
Materials applied on markers (such as hour and minute hands) emitting luminous energy previously absorbed as electromagnetic light rays.
Or Liquid Crystal Display; used for the display on most modern digital watches. Followed from the earlier LED or Light Emitting Diode display of the first quartz digital watches. The LCD was preferred as it used vastly less power than the LED thus the time could be shown constantly as opposed to having to press a button for time display.
18th century invention which is made up of an escape wheel, a lever, and a balance wheel, the only one now used in making mechanical watches.
Also called line. A French and Swiss unit of measurement for indicating the size of a movement. A ligne = 2x25 mm.
LIQUID-CRYSTAL DISPLAY (LCD)
A digital watch display that shows the time electronically by means of a liquid held in a thin layer between two transparent plates. All LCD watches have quartz movements.
To reduce friction caused by the running of wheels and other parts, special low-density oils are used in the pivots turning inside jewels, the sliding areas between levers, and the spring inside the barrel, as well as numerous other parts of a movement.
Projections on a watch face to which the watch band or bracelet is attached Various types of lugs can be found such as rounded lugs, teardrop lugs and hidden lugs.
Self-illuminating paint that is put on the hands and markers to read the time in low light situations.
The main plate is the base plate on which all other parts of a watch movement are mounted.
The spring, which stores and transmits the driving force of a movement.
A mechanical movement in which winding is performed by hand.
Factory that makes its' own components and assembles at least one complete movement (caliber). A manufacture produces the movement and then assembles it.
A feature, usually consisting of a graduated scale on the watch's bezel, that lets the wearer translate one type of measurement into another-miles into kilometers, for instance, or pounds into kilograms.
A movement powered by a mainspring, working in conjunction with a balance wheel.
A measurement used to measure water resistance. (10m= 33.3ft= 1ATM= 1BAR)
1/1000 mm or 0,001 millimeter used, for instance, to measure the thickness of goldplating.
Watch crystal made from what is essentially a form of glass. More scratch resistant than acrylic, a mineral crystal will however scratch and is extremely difficult, if not impossible to polish.
Glass that has been tempered to resist scratching.
A mini-sweep movement has the same functions as a three-hand movement, however,the second hand appears in a "sub-dial" or "eye" usually located at the six o'clockposition.
A function on a watch that can strike the time in hours, quarters, or seconds by means of a push piece.
A self contained mechanism, independent of the basic caliber, added to the watch movement to make an additional function available, such as chronograph, power reserve, GMT, perpetual or full calendar.
Moon phase shows: new moon, first quarter moon, full moon, and last quarter moon by means of a disk that rotates beneath a small aperture. The 29 and 1/2 day cycle of the moon.
The gearing, which causes the hour hand to travel twelve times slower than the minute hand. It consists of the cannon pinion, minute wheel, and pinion and hour wheels.
The entire mechanism of a watch that keeps time and moves the watch's hands, calendar, etc. Movements are either mechanical or quartz. Movements are divided into two families: quartz and mechanical; the latter are available with manual or automatic winding devices.
O rings are used to seal the backs of watches which feature either a press-in back or a screw on back. They ensure water resistance. Usually also used on the winding stems of watches and in the winding crowns to protect against the ingestion of water and dust. Normally made from a rubber/plastic compound.
Rotation cycle of the balance wheel.
A rare and lustrous metal that is slightly whiter than platinum and slightly harder. It is part of the platinum group of metals. Palladium is tarnish resistant, electrically stable and resistant to chemical erosion as well as intense heat.
Part or parts of the escapement transmitting motive force to the balance, in order to maintain the amplitude of oscillations unchanged by freeing one tooth of the escape wheel at a time. In general, pallets are jewels and termed "pallet stones."
Surface decoration applied to plates, bridges, and rotors comprising an even pattern of partially overlapping dots, applied with a quickly rotating plastic or wooden peg.
Extremely elaborate complication that keeps track of the day, month, date, and sometimes even the moon phase, zodiac signs, decade, century, and which adjusts for the length of the month and for leap years. (Accurate until 2100)
A small-toothed wheel that combines with a wheel and an arbor to form a gear. A pinion has less teeth than a wheel and transmits motive force to a wheel.
Sapphire is a transparent to translucent natural variety of corundum that is highly prized as a gemstone. Its colour is due mainly to the presence of small amounts of iron andtitanium and normally ranges from very pale blue to deep indigo. Colourless, gray, yellow, pale pink, orange, green, violet, and brown varieties also are known as sapphire; redvarieties are called ruby. They are often used in jewellery, but are most commonly used in the manufacture of jewel bearings, gauges, dies, and other specialized components.Sapphires are found in Sri Lanka, Myanmar, India, and Montana in the U.S. Because of its remarkable hardness and high-durability (sapphire has a hardness of 9 outof 10 on the Mohs scale of mineral hardness), it is classified among the most valuable of gems in the watch industry after diamonds, rubies and emeralds. Pink Sapphire is considered, due to its deep pink color, as one of the most fashionable gemstone-Its very special shimmer fits perfectly with mother-of-pearl and white ceramic.
The extremity of a rotating arbor on which it is supported.
Metal piece that holds up the bridge and other parts of the movement. The bottom side is the dial side the top side is the bridge side.
One of the rarest precious metals as well as one of the strongest and heaviest.
Hands point to the date as opposed to appearing in an aperture.
Brilliant meal surface obtained on the watchcase with a fine abrasive.
Polyurethane is a unique material that offers the elasticity of rubber combined with the toughness and durability of metal. Polyurethane is available in a very broad hardnessrange and is available in a wide range of colours.
In its purest sense, used to refer to how long a watch will run once fully wound. Thus a watch with a power reserve of 48 hours should run for that period. Often used to describe a watch which has a power reserve indicator on the dial (usually a small pointer hand and a relevant scale).
A chronograph with an extra dial or timer that gives the rate of pulse per minute.
Scale on the dial or bezel of a watch that works in conjunction with the seconds hand to measure pulse rate. A reference number tells how many pulse beats to count. If the reference number is 15, the operator counts 15 pulse beats. At the last beat the seconds hand shows the pulse beat per minute.
A mechanical element mounted on a case for the control of specific functions. Generally, pushers are used in chronographs, but may also be used with other functions.
PVD GOLD/PVD BLACK
An abbreviation which stands for Physical Vapour Deposition is the method of coating watch cases by integrating titanium particles and then depositing gold for color. The PVD technology used for cases and bracelets is one of the most up-to-date and non-polluting coating system.Its quality can be compared to 10 micron gold-plating. The PVD finish is highly scratch resistant and long lasting. The authentic gilt colour tone is obtained by applying a23-carat gold layer. The PVD technique is used for black plating as well.The process involves placing the item to be coated in an inert (non-reactive) atmosphere, heating it up to 400Â¬âˆž C or so (depending on the process), and spraying it with the molecules that you want to coat it with. Concerning the Gc styles, some are been sprayed with rose or yellow 18k gold molecules. This process is non-polluting. PVD makes the plating more durable, more wear resistant, and also have a higher brightness. Our gold PVD finish is highly scratch resistant and long lasting. Please be careful not to use the word'plating' to describe Gc watches, we cannot say that Gc watches are gold plated, but they are gold PVD. A few may wonder if the PVD is from'real' gold-well this is 18 carat gold PVD.
A watch with analog or digital display, whose movement is regulated by high-frequency vibrations induced in a quartz crystal. Usually battery-powered, it uses an electric current to cause a quartz oscillator to vibrate, normally 32,768 Hz per second but sometimes at much higher frequencies. These vibrations are processed by an integrated circuit which transforms the current into impulses. These are fed into a stepping motor which drives a train of gears to move the hands. The quartz watch requires an electrical power source from a battery or generator similar to a mechanical rotor. Some quartz watches have solar cells which take light from any soul, natural or artificial, and transform them into electrical energy.
QUICK SET DATE
Mechanism to set the date directly to avoid having to turn the hands over 24 hours.
RATCHET BEZEL RING
Bezel ring which can either turn one way or both ways and generally clicks into place.
A saw-toothed wheel, in which the fronts of the teeth are radical and the backs straight lines. Used in conjunction with a click (pawl) and spring and fixed by a square hole to the barrel arbor. The click prevents the wheel turning in the unwinding direction.
The timekeeping performance of a watch. The "daily rate" denotes the difference between two states of a timekeeper separated by an interval of 24 hours.
Used to describe the split seconds chronograph (see Flyback) which has two seconds hands sitting atop one another.
Backward movement of the escape wheel during the unlocking process. It occurs when the exit pallet presses a tooth of the escape wheel backward.
Another name for a sub-dial; this is usually a dial within the main dial of a watch. The best example is possibly a chronograph where there may be registers for the chronograph minutes and hours. Some watches have registers with pointers showing the day and date.
Device inside a watch that speeds it up or slows it down to allow the more precise setting of the watch.
A watch whose mechanism can be set in motion to denote the approximate time by hammers striking bells, gongs, or a block within the watch case.
Mechanism that lets a hand quickly return to its original position, usually used to return to one after 60 seconds.
Alloy of gold, copper and silver. The rose-gold tone is due to the copper content.
A bezel (the ring surrounding the watch face) that can be turned. Different types of rotating bezels perform different timekeeping and mathematical functions (see "elapsed time rotating bezel," "unidirectional rotating bezel," "bi-directional rotating bezel" and "slide rule.")
The oscillating mass which winds an automatic movement. A rotor most commonly is free to rotate in a full 360 degrees and may wind the watch when it is rotating in one direction only or indeed may wind in both directions through the use of reverser wheels and gears.
An elastic material obtained from the milky sap or latex of various tropical plants, especially the rubber tree, and pigmented, finished, and modified into products suchas bracelets, crown protection or cases. Natural rubber is often vulcanized, a process by which the rubber is heated and sulfur, peroxide or bisphenol are added to improveresilience and elasticity, and to prevent it from perishing. Vulcanization greatly improves the durability and utility of rubber.
Ruby is a very hard stone usually synthetic, which prevents the wear of gear train parts. Also called jewels.
Synthetic corundum crystal with a hardness second only to a diamond. Transparent sapphire is used for a scratchproof watch glass. Made of crystallizing aluminum oxide at very high temperatures. Chemically the same as natural sapphire, but colorless. It is hard and brittle so it shatters easier than plexiglass or mineral glass. 9 on a mohs scale, a diamond is 10.
Caseback has a thread so that it can be screwed into the case.
A watch winding crown which screws tightly to the case of the watch on a tube; the purpose is to ensure extreme water resistancy.
SCREW DOWN CROWN
It seals the crown against the case to prevent water penetration.
A crown that can be screwed into the case to make the watch watertight.
Synthetic gaskets that seal the joints between parts of the case and keep out the water.
Basic unit of time (abbr. s or sec), corresponding to one 86,000th part of the mean solar day, i.e. the duration of rotation, about its own axis, of an ideal Earth describing a circle round the Sun in one year, at a constant speed and in the plane of the Equator. After the Second World War, atomic clocks became so accurate that they could demonstrate the infinitesimal irregularities (a few hundreths of a second per year) of the Earth's rotation about its own axis. It was then decided to redefine the reference standard; this was done by the 13th General Conference on Weights and Measures in 1967, in the following terms: "The second is the duration of 9,192,631,770 periods of the radiation corresponding to the transition between the two hyperfine levels of the fundamental state of the atom of caesium 133". Conventionally, the second is subdivised into tenths, hundredths, thousendths (milliseconds), millionths (microseconds), thousand-millionths (nanoseconds) and billionths (picoseconds).
SECOND-TIME ZONE INDICATOR
An additional dial that can be set to the time in another time zone. It lets the wearer keep track of local time and the time in another country simultaneously.
Spring devices in balance wheel bearings that divert shocks away from the fragile pivot to the sturdier parts of the balance staff. The springs allow the balance wheel to return to its original position after shocks.
Ability to withstand accidental fall or shocks without being damaged.
A satin finish obtained by using tiny glass pellets, one or two microns in diameter.
Movement on a watch where the plates have been removed or trimmed so that you can see the gears and other parts. As much metal is removed as possible and all the remaining parts are decorated with elaborate engravings.
A device, consisting of logarithmic or other scales on the outer edge of the watch face, that can be used to do mathematical calculations. One of the scales is marked on a rotating bezel, which can be slid against the stationary scale to make the calculations. Some watches have slide rules that allow specific calculations, such as for fuel consumption by an airplane or fuel weight.
SLIDE RULE BEZEL
A rotating bezel that is printed with a logarithmic scale and assorted other scales and is used in conjunction with fixed rules of mathematics to perform general mathematical calculations or navigational computations.
A watch that uses solar energy (from any light source) to power the quartz movement.
A split seconds chronograph or rattrapante (catch up in French) or doppelchrono (double chrono is German) has two seconds hands, the first push starts both hands together, the second push stops one hand while the other continues, and another push allows the stopped hand to catch up with the moving seconds.
SPRING BAR (PIN)
Spring-loaded bars between the lugs on the case, used to attach a strap or metal bracelet to the case.
All Gc timepiece case and bracelets are solid 316L stainless steel. Stainless steel is an extremely durable metal alloy that is virtually immune to rust, discoloration and corrosion. It is also antimagnetic.
The time that is kept locally in each time zone when daylight savings time is not in use.
The shaft that connects to the movement's winding mechanism, the crown is fitted to the opposite end.
The part of a quartz movement that moves the gear train, which in turn moves the watch's hands.
STOP SECOND (SAME AS HACKING)
A crown which can be pulled out to set the seconds on a watch accurately.
A watch with a seconds hand that measures intervals of time. When a stopwatch is incorporated into a standard watch, both the stopwatch function and the timepiece are referred to as a chronograph.
An auxiliary dial on a watch face used for any of several purposes, such as keeping track of elapsed minutes or hours on a chronograph or indicating the date.
A watch that is accurate to +/- 10 seconds per year. A technology that uses quartz crystal oscillators working with an integrated circuit, assuring up to 10 times more accuracy than a conventional quartz watch.
Photo-luminescent non-radioactive material with a long period of phosphorescence that is applied on marker(s) and/or hands emitting the luminous energy previously absorbed as electromagnetic light rays.
A seconds hand pivoted in the center of the dial concentric with the hour and minute hands, and traversing the dial in one minute. Sometimes called a "center seconds."
Legally protected indication of Swiss origin. Under terms of the Swiss Federal Council ordinance of December 23, 1971, it can apply only to watches with: -Swiss Movement -Assembled in Switzerland -Final inspection must be done in Switzerland and must contain at least 50% swiss parts.
Scale on bezel or inner ring which measures the speed at which an object moves over a given distance. As the moving vehicle, for instance, passes the starting point of the measured course whose length corresponds to that being used as the basis of calibration, the observer releases the chronograph hand and stops it as the vehicle passes the finishing point. The figure indicated by the hand on the tachymeter scale represents the speed in kilometers per hour.
A grey, heavy, and very hard metal. Tantalum is used to make a variety of alloys at high melting point and high strength. Tantalum is completely immune to body liquids and is a non-irrititating material.
A telemeter determines the distance of an object from the observer by measuring how long it takes sound to travel that distance. Like a tachymeter (see "tachymeter"), it consists of a stopwatch, or chronograph, and a special scale, usually on the outermost edge of the watch face.
The wheel between the center and fourth wheel.
Refers to a movement with only an hour hand, minute hand, and second hand. Sometimes such movements also have a date function.
THREE QUARTER PLATE
In a three quarter plate movement, a section of the upper (top) plate is cut away to allow the balance to be mounted in the same plane as the plate, the balance and escape wheel having separate cocks.
Instrument used for registering intervals of time (durations, brief times), without any indication of the time of day.
The world is divided into 24 time zones spaced at intervals of 15 degrees in longitude. The zones start at 0 with Greenwich. Within each time zone, the hour and minute of the day is defined to be the same. Time zones are usually specified by the number of hours they differ from GMT. EST is GMT 5 hours.
It is a light (20% lighter than steel), strong (30% stronger than steel), lustrous metal with a grayish color. It can be alloyed with iron, aluminum, to produce strong lightweight alloys. Titanium is of excellent wearing comfort and is hypoallergenic. It is very resistant to salt water corrosion makes it useful in divers watches although since it can be scratched easily some manufacturers use a coating to resist scratching.
A watch shaped like a barrel, with two convex sides.
Abraham Breguet's device (patented in 1801) for neutralizing the positional (vertical) errors in a watch due to gravity and positioning of the watch to improve the watch's rate. In a tourbillon (from the French word for "whirlwind"), the entire escapement (balance, balance spring, escapement mechanism) is mounted in a revolving carriage or cage and rotated completely on its axis over regular periods of time, usually once a minute. Although this device is not absolutely necessary for accuracy purposes today, it is still appreciated as a complication of high quality watches.
In a tourbillon device, the tourbillon carriage houses the balance, balance spring, and escapement and the carriage is rotated usually by one revolution per minute, thus compensating for all the possible errors over 360 degrees.
The series of wheels in a watch: center wheel, third wheel, fourth wheel, and escape wheel.
TRIPLE DATE CALENDAR
Complication that provides month, day and date.
A slightly radioactive substance that collects light and is used to allow the hands or hour markers to glow in the dark. The radiation is so low that there is no health risk. Watches with tritium must be marked with the letter T on the dial near the 6'oclock. Now largely superceded by non-radioactive organic compounds such as the trade name Luminova.
A movement with two eyes (usually at the 3 o'clock and 9 o'clock positions) which display the day and date. NOTE: A three-eye multifunction movement looks similar to a chronograph because it also has three eyes. However, the eyes tell day, date, and 24-hour/international time. You can easily distinguish a chronograph from a multifunction because chronographs have two pushers on either side of the crown, whereas multifunctions do not have pushers.
A bezel that rotates only in a counterclockwise direction It is designed to prevent a diver who has unwittingly knocked the bezel off its original position from overestimating his remaining air supply. Because the bezel moves in only one direction, the diver can err only on the side of safety when timing his dive. Many divers' watches are ratcheted, so that they lock into place for greater safety.
Universal Time Co-ordinated. A universal time based on the Greenwich Meridian used by the military and in aviation. Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) can be considered approximately equivalent to Universal Time Co ordinated(UTC).. GMT as such is now obsolete however, being replaced by UTC. Using this timezone/standard avoids errors and problems associated with different timezones and summer times operational in different countries.
Movement of a pendulum or other oscillating element, limited by two consecutive extreme positions. The balance of a mechanical watch generally makes five or six vibrations per second (i.e. 18,000 or 21,600 per hour), but that of a high-frequency watch may make seven, eight or even ten vibrations per second (i.e. 25,200, 28,800 or 36, 000 per hour).
VIBRATION FREQUENCY (VPH)
In a watch, the balance wheel swings to and fro on its own axis and acts as the ruling organ of the movement's escapement. The amplitude (usually about 300 degrees) is restricted by the balance spring, which also provides the reversing of the direction of rotation. The frequency of the alternating vibration is measured either in vibrations per hour (vph) or Hertz (Hz). Until the 1950s, wristwatches worked mostly at a frequency of 18,000 vph (2.5 Hz); later, higher frequencies were adopted to produce a lower percentage of irregularities to the rate. Today's watches usually have a frequency of 28,800 vph (4 Hz), which assures a good precision standard and less lubrication problems than extremely high frequencies, such as 36,000 vph (5 Hz).
The ability of a watch to withstand water from entering the case. Water resistance is generally measured in four ways, where 1 ATM= 1 BAR = 10m = 33.3ft. Terms such as "water resistant to 50 meters" or "water resistant to 200 meters" indicate that the watch can be worn underwater to various depths.Water Resistant 30 m or 50 m: Suitable for water related work and fishing. Water Resistant 100 m: Suitable for recreational surfing, swimming, snorkeling, sailing and water sports.
Pinion circular part revolving an axis to transmit power or motion. Center wheel, front wheel, hour wheel, minute wheel, third wheel, transmission wheel.
Same as Crown, above. Used for winding the watch and setting time/date
The button on the right side of the watch case used to wind the mainspring. Also called a "crown."
WORLD TIME WATCH
24 different time zones that can display the current time in any part of the world. A dial, usually on the outer edge of the watch face, that tells the time in up to 24 time zones around the world. The time zones are represented by the names of cities printed on the bezel or dial. The wearer reads the hour in a particular time zone by looking at the scale next to the city that the hour hand is pointing to. The minutes are read as normal. Watches with this feature are called "world timers."
A countdown timer (see "countdown timer") that sounds warning signals during the countdown to a boat race.
Yet another reference to GMT and UTC! The use of this phrase is prevalent in civil aviation and military. Why Zulu? Well, Zulu is the phonetic for Z and the Z is for the Zero meridian, being that meridian passing through Greenwich.